Previous studies have documented health and psychological benefits associated with exercise in the outdoors. However, questions still exist about the perceived benefits of and commitment to outdoor exercise throughout the seasons in a northern climate, and little is known about the outdoor exercise patterns and experiences of the college student demographic. A survey was conducted with undergraduate students (N = 502) in order to assess the year-round patterns and perceived benefits, barriers, and experiences they associate with outdoor exercise. Cluster analysis was used to group participants according to indoor/outdoor exercise patterns, and the groups’ perceived benefits, barriers, and outdoor exercise experiences were compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. The three identified indoor/outdoor exercise groups (year-round outdoor, seasonal outdoor, and indoor) differed in exercise patterns where the year-round outdoor group yielded greater total exercise scores as compared with the other groups. Participants in all three groups believed there were benefits to outdoor over indoor exercise, and the groups did not differ in terms of what those benefits were. The year-round outdoor group was less affected by certain outdoor exercise barriers and rated environmental experience items such as comfort, interest in trying new activities, and connection to the natural environment higher than the indoor group. Areas for further research were noted including identifying when (i.e., with how much experience) outdoor exercise becomes perceptually easier and what types and quantities of outdoor exercise foster a sense of empowerment that is motivating for healthy outdoor and total exercise patterns. Suggestions for college outdoor fitness facilities and programs were also discussed.
Cultural tourism is a niche market to which little attention has been paid, especially compared to mass tourism. To broaden and increase the potential market, this study applies inclusive design principles, as understanding and designing for diversity, to identify barriers and drivers in cultural tourism for five groups, including youth, people uninterested in cultural tourism (noncultural tourists), older adults, people with disabilities, and cultural tourists. The objective of this study is therefore to identify the barriers and drivers in cultural tourism among five groups of potential customers, as defined above and to compare the differences between close-ended and open-ended answers seeking out the neglected barriers and drivers within the context of Thailand’s cultural tourism. To achieve this objective, 500 questionnaires were distributed to five groups in various locations. The most common barrier cited by the five groups is “transportation.” In addition, except for disabled people, barriers about “time” can cover four groups. However, drivers seem to differ more between groups. Only three items—“visiting a place that I have not visited before,” “just relaxing,” and “new experiences and different lifestyles”—are in the top five for all groups.
The study enhances the method developed by Rossini in 2012, applying the analysis of social networks, which generates sociograms that indicate the interrelations among categories in order to analyze the landscape of the city. This matrix becomes a new method that, when applied, will indicate built differentials and potentials for the development of cultural tourism. It will also help society to understand the importance of the material patrimony as an opportunity to preserve and recover the memory and identity of the past so that future generations can experience them.